Local Flora

The Native Vascular Plants of Washington County, Ohio

List I -Common and Frequently Found Species
(rare and infrequently found species - List II)

compiled by 

Diane Mitchell and edited by Marilyn Ortt - June, 1997, (edition 1)

and drawn from

The Vascular Plants of Unglaciated Ohio
by Allison W. Cusick and Gene M. Silberhorn, 1977


The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio - Part 2 Linaceae through Campanulaceae
by Tom S. Cooperrider, 1995


The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio - Part 3 Asteraceae
by T. Richard Fisher, 1988


This list was done on the basis of a literature review. There are many finds yet to be made. We hope this list will encourage many people to be aware and search for them.

1. Equisetaceae - Horsetail family
a. Common Horsetail Equisetum arvense Common/Landscape
b. Scouring-rush Equisetum hyemale Common/Landscape
2. Lycopodiaceae - Clubmoss family
a. Shining Clubmoss Lycopodium lucidulum Frequent
b. Ground Pine Lycopodium digitatum Frequent
3. Ophioglossaceae - Adder's-tongue family
a. Common Grape-fern Botrychium dissectum Common
b. Rattlesnake-fern Botrychium virginianum Common
4. Osmundaceae - Flowering Fern family
a. Interrupted Fern Osmunda claytonia Common
5. Polypodiaceae - Fern family
a. Lowland Fragile-fern Cystopteris protrusa Common/Landscape
b Sensitive Fern Onoclea sensibilis Common
c. New York Fern Thelypteris noveboracensis  Common/Landscape
d. Broad Beech-fern Phegopteris hexagonoptera Common
e. Fancy Wood-fern Dryopteris spinulosa Common
f. Evergreen Wood-fern Dryopteris intermedia Common
g. Leathery Wood-fern Dryopteris marginalis Common
h. Christmas Fern Polystichum acrostichoides Common/Landscape
i. Narrow-leaved Spleenwort Athyrium pycnocarpon Common/Landscape
j. Silvery Spleenwort Athyrium thelypterioides Common/Landscape
k. Northern Lady-fern Athyrium angustum Common /Landscape
l. Ebony Spleenwort Asplenium platyneuron Common/Landscape
m. Maidenhair-fern Adiantum pedatum Common/Landscape
n. Bracken Pteridium aquilinum Common/Landscape
o. Rockcap-fern Polypodium virginianum Common
6. Pinaceae - Pine family
a. Hemlock Tsuga canadensis Frequent/Landscape
b. Virginia Pine Pinus virginiana Common/Landscape
c. Pitch Pine Pinus rigida Common/Landscape
7. Cupressaceae - Cedar family
a. Red Cedar Juniperus virginiana Common/Landscape
8. Typhaceae - Cat-tail family
a. Common Cat-tail Typha latifolia Common/Landscape
9. Sparganiaceae - Bur-reed family
a. Common Bur-reed Sparganium americanum Frequent/Landscape
10. Potamogetonaceae - Pondweed family
a. Leafy Pondweed Potamogeton foliosus Frequent
11. Alismataceae - Water-plantain family
a. Common Arrowhead Sagittaria latifolia - var. latifolia Common/Landscape
12. Gramineae - Grass family
a. Bromus purgans Common
b. Woodland Brome-grass Bromus pubescens Common
c. Woodland Fescue Festuca obtusa Common
d. F Festuca octoflora Frequent
e. Fowl Manna-grass Glyceria striata Common
f. Woodland Bluegrass Poa sylvestris Common
g. Early Bluegrass Poa cuspidata Common
h. Poa alsodes Frequent
i. Creeping Love-grass Eragrostis hypnoides Common
j. Common Love-grass Eragrostis pectinacea Common
k. Eragrostis frankii Frequent
l. Purple Love-grass Eragrostis spectabilis Common/Landscape
m. Tall Redtop Triodia flavia Common/Landscape
n. Wild Rye Elymus virginicus Common/Landscape
o. Streambank Wild Rye Elymus riparius Common
p. Downy Wild Rye Elymus villosus Common
q. Bottle-brush grass Elymus hystrix Common/Landscape
r. Poverty Grass Danthonia spicata Common
s. Soporobolus asper Frequent
t. Autumn Redtop Agrostis perennans Common
u. Wood Reed-grass Cinna arundinacea Common/Landscape
v. Nimble-will Muhlenbergia schreberi Common
w. Muhlenbergia sobolifera Frequent
x.  Muhlenbergia tenuiflora Frequent
y. Muhlenbergia sylvatica Frequent
z. Muhlenbergia frondosa Common
aa. Brachyelytrum erectum Common
bb. Triple-awn Grass Aristida oligantha Common
cc. Aristida dichotoma Common
dd. Prairie Cord-grass Spartina pectinata Frequent
ee. Reed Canary-grass Phalaris arundinacea Common/Landscape
ff. White Grass Leersia virginica Common
gg. Rice Cut-grass Leersia oryzoides Common
hh. Paspalum laeve Frequent
ii. Paspalum ciliatifolium Common
jj. Fall Panic-grass Panicum dichotomiflorum Common
kk. Common Witch-grass Panicum capillare Common
ll. Switch-grass Panicum virgatum Frequent
mm. Panicum stipitatum Frequent
nn. Panicum linearifolium Common
oo. Panicum microcarpon Common
pp. Panicum dichotomum Common
qq. Panicum lanuginosum Common
rr.  Panicum sphaerocarpon Frequent
ss. Panicum commutatum Common
tt. Deer-tongue Panic-grass Panicum clandestinum Common
uu. Broad-leaved Panic-grass Panicum latifolium Common
vv.  Panicum boscii Common
ww. Echinochloa pungens Frequent
xx.  Broom-sedge Andropogon virginicus Common
yy.  Andropogon elliottii Frequent
13. Cyperaceae - Sedge family
a. Cyperus ferruginescens Frequent
b. Yellow Nut-grass Cyperus esculentus Common
c. Umbrella-sedge Cyperus strigosus Common
d Common Spike-rush Eleocharis obtusa Common
e. Dark Green Bulrush Scirpus atrovirens Common
f. Wool-grass Scirpus cyperinus Common
g. Carex rosea Common
h. Carex cephalophora Common
i. Carex sparganioides Common
j. Fox Sedge Carex vulpinoidea Common
k. Carex tribuloides Common
l. Carex normalis Frequent
m. Carex communis Common
n. Carex pensylvanica Common
o. Carex artitecta Common
p. Carex hirtifolia Frequent
q. Carex torta Common
r. Carex shortiana Common
s. Carex hirsutella Common
t. Carex gracillima Frequent
u. Carex amphibola Common
v. Carex platyphylla Frequent
w. Carex digitalis Frequent
x. Carex laxiculmis Frequent
y Carex albursina Common
z. Carex laxiflora Common
aa. Carex blanda Common
bb. Carex squarrosa Common
cc. Carex gracilescens Common
dd. Carex frankii Common
ee. Carex lurida Common
ff. Carex grayii Frequent
gg. Hop Sedge Carex lupulina Frequent
14. Araceae - Arum family
a. Jack-in-the-pulpit Arisaema atrorubens Common/Landscape
b. Sweet Flag Acorus americanus Common/Landscape
15. Lemnaceae - Duckweed family
a. Lesser Duckweed Lemna minor Common
16. Commelinaceae - Spiderwort family
a. Spiderwort Tradescantia virginiana Frequent/Landscape
b. Ohio Spiderwort Tradescantia ohiensis Frequent/Landscape
17. Juncaceae - Rush family
a. Path Rush Juncus tenuis Common
b. Common Rush Juncus effusus Common
c. Juncus torreyi Frequent
d. Juncus acuminatus Common
e. Woodrush Luzula multiflora Frequent
f. Woodrush Luzula echinata Frequent/Landscape
18. Liliaceae - Lily family
a. Bellwort Uvularia perfoliata Common/Landscape
b. Large-flowered Bellwort Uvularia grandiflora Common/Landscape
c. Wild Garlic Allium canadense Common
d. Yellow Trout-lily Erythronium americanum Common/Landscape
e. Wild Hyacinth Camassia scilloides Frequent/Landscape
f. False Solomon's-seal Smilacina racemosa Common/Landscape
g. True Solomon's-seal Polygonatum pubescens Common/Landscape
h. Slender Solomon's-seal Polygonatum biflorum Common/Landscape
i. Giant Solomon's-seal Polygonatum commutatum Common/Landscape
j. Cucumber-root Medeola virginiana Common/Landscape
k. Toad Trillium Trillium sessile Frequent/Landscape
l. Drooping Trillium Trillium flexipes Frequent/Landscape
m. Wet-dog Trillium Trillium erectum Frequent/Landscape
n. Large-flowered Trillium Trillium grandiflorum Common/Landscape Ohio state flower
o. Greenbrier Smilax rotundifolia Common
p. Bristly Greenbrier Smilax hispida Common
q. Smilax glauca Common
19. Dioscoreaceae - Yam family
a. Whorled Yam Dioscorea quaternata Frequent
b. Wild Yam Dioscorea villosa Common/Landscape
20. Amaryllidaceae - Amaryllis family
a. Yellow Stargrass Hypoxis hirsuta Frequent
21. Iridaceae - Iris family
a. Blue-eyed-grass Sisyrinchium angustifolium Common/Landscape
22. Orchidaceae - Orchis family
a. Little Ladies'-tresses Spiranthes tuberosa Frequent
b. Rattlesnake-plantain Goodyera pubescens Common
c. Large-leaved Twayblade Liparis lilifolia Frequent
d. Putty-root Aplectrum hyemale Frequent
23. Salicaceae - Willow family
a. Black Willow Salix nigra Common/Landscape
b. Sandbar Willow Salix interior Common/Landscape
c. Salix rigida Common
d. Gray Willow Salix humilis Frequent
e. Big-toothed Aspen Common
f. Cottonwood Populus deltoides Common/Landscape
24. Juglandaceae - Walnut family
a. Black Walnut Juglans nigra Common/Landscape
     b. Bitternut Carya cordiformis Common/Landscape
c. Shagbark Hickory Carya ovata Common/Landscape
     d. Mockernut Carya tomentosa Common/Landscape
e. Pignut Carya glabra Common/Landscape
     f. Sweet Pignut Carya ovalis Frequent/Landscape
25. Betulaceae - Birch family
a. Hazelnut Corylus ameriana Common/Landscape
     b. Hop-hornbeam Ostrya virginiana Common/Landscape
c. Ironwood Carpinus caroliniana Common/Landscape
     d. River Birch Betula nigra Common/Landscape
e. Common Alder Alnus serrulata Common/Landscape
26. Fagaceae - Beech family
a. Beech Fagus grandifolia Common/Landscape
b. White Oak Quercus alba Common/Landscape
     c. Chestnut Oak Quercus prinus Common/Landscape
d. Red Oak Quercus rubra Common/Landscape
     e. Scarlet Oak Quercus coccinea Common/Landscape
f. Black Oak Quercus velutina Common/Landscape
27. Ulmaceae - Elm family
a. Slippery Elm Ulmus ruba Common/Landscape
b. White Elm Ulmus americana Common/Landscape
c. Hackberry Celtis occidentalis Common/Landscape
28. Urticaceae - Nettle family
a. Stinging Nettle Urtica dioica Common
     b. Wood Nettle Laportea canadensis Common
c. Clearweed Pilea pumila Common
d. False Nettle Boehmeria cylindrica Common
29. Aristolochiaceae - Birthwort family
     a. Wild Ginger Asarum canadense Common/Landscape
b. Virginia Snakeroot Aristolochia serpentaria Frequent
30. Polygonaceae - Buckwheat family
a. Swamp Dock Rumex verticillatus Frequent/Landscape
     b. Water Dock Rumex altissimus Frequent
c. Jumpseed Polygonum virginianum Common
     d. Polygonum erectum Frequent
e. Polygonum coccineum Frequent
     f. Pinkweed Polygonum pensylvanicum Common
g. Dock-leaved Smartweed Polygonum lapathifolium Frequent
     h. Polygonum punctatum Common
i. Mild Water-pepper Polygonum hydropiperoides Frequent
     j. Arrow-leaved Tearthumb Polygonum sagittatum Common
k. Climbing False Buckwheat Polygonum scandens Common
31. Amaranthaceae - Amaranth family
a. Amaranthus tuberculatus Frequent
32. Phytolacaceae - Pokeweed family
a. Pokeweed Phytolacca americana Common
33. Portulacaceae - Purslane family
a. Spring-beauty Claytonia virginiana Common/Landscape
34. Caryophyllaceae - Pink family
a. Forked Chickweed Paronychia canadensis Common
b. Paronychia fastigiata Frequent
c. Pearlwort Sagina procumbens Frequent
d. Thyme-leaved Sandwort Arenaria serpyllifolia Common
e. Water Chickweed Stellaria aquatica Frequent/Landscape
f. Woodland Chickweed Stellaria pubera (silvatica) Frequent
g. Nodding Chickweed Cerastium nutans Common
h. Starry Campion Silene stellata Common/Landscape
35. Nymphaeaceae - Water-lily family
a. Spatterdock Nuphar advena Frequent
36. Ranunculaceae - Crowfoot family
a. Ranunculus allegheniensis Common
b. Small-flowered Crowfoot Ranunculus abortivus Common
c. Ranunculus micranthus Frequent
d. Ranunculus recurvatus Common
e. Early Buttercup Ranunculus hispidus Common
f. Swamp Buttercup Ranunculus septentrionalis Common
g. Early Meadow-rue Thalictrum dioicum Common/Landscape
h. Thalictrum revolutum Frequent
i. Tall Meadow-rue Thalictrum polygamum Common/Landscape
j. Rue-anemone Anemonella thalictroides Common/Landscape
k. Round-leaved Hepatica Hepatica americana Common/Landscape
l. Sharp-lobed Hepatica Hepatica acutiloba Common/Landscape
m. Thimble-flower Anemone virginiana Common
n. Virgin's-bower Clematis virginiana Common/Landscape
o. Columbine Aquilegia canadensis Common/Landscape
p. Dwarf Larkspur Delphinium tricorne Common/Landscape
q. Bugbane or Black Cohosh Cimicifuga racemosa Common/Landscape
r. Baneberry Actaea pachypoda Common
37. Berberidaceae - Barberry family
a. May-apple Podophyllum peltatum Common
b. Blue Cohosh Caulophyllum thalictroides Common/Landscape
38. Menispermaceae - Moonseed family
a. Moonseed Menispermum canadense /Landscape
39. Magnoliaceae - Magnolia family
a. Tulip-tree Liriodendron tulipifera Common/Landscape
40. Annonaceae - Custard-apple family
a. Pawpaw Asimina triloba Common/Landscape
41. Lauraceae - Laurel family
a. Sassafras Sassafras albidum Common/Landscape
b. Spicebush Lindera benzoin Common/Landscape
42. Papaveraceae - Poppy family
a. Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis Frequent/Landscape
43. Fumariaceae - Fumitory family
a. Dutchman's-breeches Dicentra cucullaria Common/Landscape
b. Squirrel-corn Dicentra canadensis  Common/Landscape
c.Yellow Fumewort Corydalis flavula Frequent
44. Cruciferae - Mustard family
a. Marsh Yellow-cress Rorippa palustris (fernaldiana) Common
b. Cut-leaved Toothwort Dentaria laciniata Common
c. Dentaria heterophylla Frequent
d. Spring Cress Cardamine bulbosa Frequent
e. Purple Bitter-cress Cardamine douglassii  Common/Landscape
f. Cardamine pensylvanica Common
g. Rock-cress Arabis laevigata Common/Landscape
h. Sicklepod Arabis canadensis Common
45. Crassulaceae - Orpine family
a. Stonecrop Sedum ternatum Common/Landscape

46. Saxifragaceae - Saxifrage family
a. Ditch Stonecrop Penthorum sedoides Common/Landscape
b. Early Saxifrage Saxifraga virginiensis  Common/Landscape
c. Foamflower Tiarella cordifolia  Frequent/Landscape
d. Alumroot Heuchera americana Common/Landscape
e. Bishop's-cap Mitella diphylla  Frequent/Landscape
f. Wild Hydrangea Hydrangea arborescens Common/Landscape
g. Gooseberry Ribes cynosbati Common
47. Hamamelidaceae - Witch-hazel family
a. Witch Hazel Hamamelis virginiana Common/Landscape
48. Platanaceae - Plane-tree family
a. Sycamore Platanus occidentalis  Common/Landscape
49. Rosaceae - Rose family
a. Ninebark Physocarpus opulifolius Common/Landscape
b. Steeple-bush Spiraea tomentosa Frequent/Landscape
c. Goat's-beard Aruncus dioicus Frequent/Landscape
d. American Ipecac Gillenia stipulacea Common/Landscape
e. Wild Crab Pyrus coronaria Common
f. Serviceberry Amelanchier arborea Common/Landscape
g. Cockspur Hawthorn Crataegus crus-galli Common
h. Dotted Thorn Crataegus punctata Common
i. Crataegus pruinosa Common
j. Crataegus pericellata Common
k. Wild Strawberry Fragaria virginiana Common
l. Pale Cinquefoil Potentilla norvegica Common/Landscape
m. Potentilla canadensis Frequent
n. Common Cinquefoil Potentilla simplex Common
o. White Avens Geum canadense Common
p. Geum virginianum Frequent
q. Geum laciniatum Common
r. Spring Avens Geum vernum Common
s. Black Raspberry Rubus occidentalis Common
t. Dewberry Rubus flagellaris Common
u. Blackberry Rubus allegheniensis Common
v. Rubus pensilvanicus Frequent
w. Agrimonia gryposepala Common
x. Common Agrimony Agrimonia parviflora Common
y. Agrimonia rostellata Frequent
z. Agrimonia pubescens Common
aa. Swamp Rose Rosa palustris Common
bb. Wild Rose Rosa carolina Common/Landscape
cc. Wild Plum Prunus americana Common/Landscape
50. Leguminosae - Pulse family
a. Honey-locust Gleditsia triacanthos Common/Landscape
b. Wild Senna Cassia hebecarpa Frequent
c. Cassia marilandica Frequent/Landscape
d. Sensitive Plant Cassia nictitans Frequent
e. Redbud Cercis canadensis Common/Landscape
f. Black Locust Robinia pseudo-acacia Common/Landscape
g. Desmodium nudiflorum Common/Landscape
h. Desmodium glutinosum Common
i. Desmodium rotundifolium Common
j. Desmodium canescens Common
k. Common Tick-trefoil Desmodium paniculatum Common
l. Desmodium canescens Common
m.Trailing Bush-clover Lespedeza procumbens Common
n. Lespedeza repens Common
o. Lespedeza violacea Frequent
p. Lespedeza virginica Common
q. C Lespedeza intermedia Common
r. Wood Vetch C# Vicia caroliniana Common/Landscape
s. Ground-nut F Apios americana Frequent
t. Black-eyed Pea F Strophostyles helvola Frequent
u. Hog-peanut C Amphicarpaea bracteata (bracteata) Common
51. Linaceae - Flax family
a. Linum medium Frequent
b. Wild Flax Linum virginianum Common
52. Oxalidaceae - Wood Sorrel family
a. Violet Wood Sorrel Oxalis violacea Common/Landscape
b. Common Sorrel Oxalis dillenii Common
c. Sourgrass Oxalis stricta Common
d. Large Sorrel Oxalis grandis Common/Landscape
53. Geraniaceae - Geranium family
a. Wild Geranium Geranium maculatum Common/Landscape
b. Carolina Crane's-bill Geranium carolinianum Frequent
54. Polygalaceae - Milkwort family
a. Milkwort Polygala sanguinea Frequent
b. Whorled Milkwort Polygala verticillata Frequent
c. Polygala verticillata (ambigua) Frequent
55. Euphorbiaceae - Spurge family
a. Three-seeded Mercury Acalypha rhomboidea (rhomboidea) Common
b. Acalypha virginica Common
c. Euphorbia dentata Frequent
d. Wood Spurge Euphorbia commutata Frequent
e. Flowering Spurge Euphorbia corollata Common
f. Milk-purslane Euphorbia maculata Common
g. Spotted Spurge Euphorbia nutans Frequent
56. Malvaceae - Mallow family
a. Rose Mallow Hibiscus moscheutos Frequent/Landscape

     57. Limnanthaceae - False Mermaid family

a. False Mermaid-weed Floerkea proserpinacoides Common
58. Anacardiaceae - Cashew or Sumac family
a. Staghorn Sumac Rhus typhina Common/Landscape
b.Smooth Sumac Rhus glabra Common/Landscape
c. Dwarf Sumac Rhus copallina Common/Landscape
d. Poison Ivy Rhus radicans Common
59. Aceraceae - Maple family
a. Sugar Maple Acer saccharum Common/Landscape
b. Black Sugar Maple Acer nigrum Common/Landscape
c. Red Maple Acer rubrum Common/Landscape
d. Silver Maple Acer saccharinum Common/Landscape
e. Box-elder Acer negundo Common/Landscape
60. Hippocastanaceae - Horse-chestnut family
a. Sweet Buckeye Aesculus flava Common/Landscape
61. Balsaminaceae - Touch-me-not family
a. Pale Touch-me-not Impatiens pallida Common/Landscape
b. Spotted Touch-me-not Impatiens capensis Common/Landscape
62. Vitaceae - Vine family
a. Virginia Creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia Common
b. Summer Grape Vitis aestivalis (aestivalis) Frequent
c. River-bank Grape Vitis riparia Common
d. Frost Grape Vitis vulpina Frequent
63. Tiliaceae - Linden family
a. Basswood Tilia americana Frequent/Landscape
64. Guttiferae - St. John's-wort
a. Dotted St. John's-wort Hypericum punctatum Common
b. Shrubby St. John's-wort Hypericum prolificum Common/Landscape
c. Hypericum mutilum Common
65. Cistaceae - Rockrose family
a. Pinweed Lechea racemulosa Common
66. Violaceae - Violet family
a. Green Violet Hybanthus concolor Frequent
b. Marsh Blue Violet Viola cucullata Frequent/Landscape
c. Thin-leaved & LeConte's Violet Viola affinis Frequent
d. Hairy Blue Violet Viola sororia Frequent/Landscape
e. Three-lobed Violet Viola triloba Common
f. Early Blue & Palmate-leaved V. Viola palmata Frequent
g. Downy V.&CommonYellow V. Viola pubescens (pubescens) Frequent/Landscape
h. Smooth Yellow Violet Viola pubescens (scabriuscula) Common
i. Creamy Violet Viola striata Common/Landscape
j. Long-spurred Violet Viola rostrata Common/Landscape
k. F Viola brauni (V rostrata x V striata) Frequent
67. Passifloraceae - Passion-flower family
a. Passion-flower Passiflora lutea Frequent/Landscape
68. Nyssaceae - Sour Gum family
a. Black Gum Nyssa sylvatica Common/Landscape
69. Onagraceae - Evening-primrose family
a. False Loosestrife Ludwigia alternifolia Common/Landscape
b. Water-purslane Ludwigia palustris Common
c. Common Evening-primrose Oenothera biennis Common
d. Sundrops Oenothera fruticosa (fruticosa) Frequent/Landscape
e. Small Sundrops Oenothera perennis Frequent/Landscape
f. Enchanter's Nightshade Circaea quadrisulcata Common
70. Umbelliferae - Parsley family
a. Black Snakeroot Sanicula marilandica Frequent
b. Clustered Snakeroot Sanicula gregaria Frequent
c. Large-footed Snakeroot Sanicula trifolia Frequent
d. Sanicle Sanicula canadensis Common
e. Chervil Chaerophyllum procumbens Common
f. Woolly Sweet Cicely Osmorhiza claytoni Common/Landscape
g. Smooth Sweet Cicely Osmorhiza longistylis Common/Landscape
h. Harbinger-of-spring(Pep&Salt) Erigenia bulbosa Frequent
i. Water Hemlock Cicuta maculata Frequent
j. Honewort Cryptotaenia canadensis Common
k. Meadow-parsnip Thaspium trifoliatum Common/Landscape
71. Cornaceae - Dogwood family
a. Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida Common/Landscape
b. Silky Dogwood Cornus amomum Common/Landscape
c. Pagoda Dogwood Cornus alternifolia Common/Landscape
72. Pyrolaceae - Pyrola & Shinleaf family
a. Spotted Wintergreen Chimaphila maculata Common/Landscape
73. Monotropaceae - Indian Pipe family
a. Indian Pipe Monotropa uniflora Common
b. Pine-sap Monotropa hypopithys Frequent
74. Ericaceae - Heath Family
a. Mountain Laurel Kalmia latifolia Common/Landscape
b. Sourwood Oxydendrum arboreum Common/Landscape
c. Huckleberry Gaylussacia baccata Frequent
d. Deerberry Vaccinium stamineum Common
e. Low Blueberry Vaccinium vacillans Common
75. Primulaceae - Primrose family
a. Whorled Loosestrife Lysimachia quadrifolia Common/Landscape
b. Fringed Loosestrife Lysimachia ciliata Common
76. Ebenaceae - Ebony family
a. Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Frequent/Landscape
77. Oleaceae - Olive family
a. White Ash Fraxinus americana (americana) Common/Landscape
b. Fraxinus americana (biltmoreana) Common
c. Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Common/Landscape
78. Apocynaceae - Dogbane family
a. Indian Hemp Apocynum cannabinum Common/Landscape
79. Asclepiadaceae - Milkweed family
a. Butterfly-weed Asclepias tuberosa Common/Landscape
b. Swamp Milkweed Asclepias incarnata Common/Landscape
c. Four-leaved Milkweed Asclepias quadrifolia Frequent/Landscape
d. Common Milkweed Asclepias syriaca Common/Landscape
80. Convolvulaceae - Convolvulus family
a. Common Morning-glory Ipomoea purpurea Common
b. Wild Potato-vine Ipomoea pandurata Common
c. Hedge Bindweed Calystegia sepium Common
d. Common Dodder Cuscuta gronovii Common
81. Polemoniaceae - Phlox family
a. Greek Valerian Polemonium reptans (reptans) Frequent/Landscape
b. Wild Blue Phlox Phlox divaricata Common/Landscape
c. Perennial Phlox Phlox paniculata Frequent/Landscape
82. Hydrophyllaceae - Waterleaf family
a. Large-leaved Waterleaf Hydrophyllum macrophyllum Frequent
b. Virginia Waterleaf Hydrophyllum virginianum Common/Landscape
c. Broad-leaved Waterleaf Hydrophyllum canadense Common/Landscape
d. Appendaged Waterleaf Hydrophyllum appendiculatum Common/Landscape
83. Boraginaceae - Borage family
a. Smaller Forget-me-not Myosotis laxa Frequent
b. Bluebells Mertensia virginica Frequent/Landscape
c. Beggar's-lice Hackelia virginiana Common
84. Verbenaceae - Vervain family
a. White Vervain Verbena urticifolia Common
b. Blue Vervain Verbena hastata Common
c. Fog-fruit Lippia lanceolata  Frequent
d. Lopseed Phryma leptostachya Frequent
85. Labiatae - Mint family
a. Germander Teucrium canadense Common
b. Downy Skullcap Scutellaria incana Common/Landscape
c. Mad-dog Skullcap Scutellaria lateriflora Common
d. Veined Skullcap Scutellaria nervosa Frequent
e. Yellow Hyssop Agastache nepetoides Frequent/Landscape
f. Heal-all Prunella vulgaris Common
g. Heart-leaved Hedge-nettle Stachys nuttallii Frequent
h Common Hedge-nettle Stachys tenufolia Frequent
i. Lyre-leaved Sage Salvia lyrata Common/Landscape
j. Wild Bergamot Monarda fistulosa Common/Landscape
k. Hairy Woodmint Blephilia hirsuta Common/Landscape
l. Penny-royal Hedeoma pulegioides Common
m. Wild Basil Satureja vulgaris Common
n. Narrow-leaved Mountain-mint Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Common
o. Pycnanthemum verticillatum Frequent
p. Hoary Mountain-mint Pycnanthemum incanum Frequent
q. Dittany Cunila origanoides Common/Landscape
r. Cut-leaved Water Horehound Lycopus americanus Common
s. Field Mint Mentha arvensis Common
t. Richweed (Stoneroot) Collinsonia canadensis Frequent/Landscape
86. Solanaceae - Nightshade family
a. Common (Black) Nightshade Solanum nigrum Common
b. Horse Nettle Solanum carolinense Common
c. Clammy Ground-cherry Physalis heterophylla Common/Landscape
d. Long-leaved Ground-cherry Physalis longifolia Frequent/Landscape
e. Virginia Ground-cherry Physalis virginiana Frequent/Landscape
87. Scrophulariaceae - Figwort family
a. Blue-eyed Mary Collinsia verna Frequent/Landscape
b. Figwort Scrophularia marilandica Common/Landscape
c. Foxglove Beard-tongue Penstemon digitalis Common/Landscape
d. Hairy Beard-tongue Penstemon hirsutus Frequent/Landscape
e. Common Monkey-flower Mimulus ringens Common/Landscape
f. Sharp-winged Monkey-flower Mimulus alatus Common/Landscape
g. False Pimpernel Lindernia dubia Common
h. Common Speedwell Veronica officinalis Common
i. Purslane Speedwell Veronica peregrina Frequent
j. Slender Gerardia Agalinis tenufolia Common/Landscape
k. Entire-leaved False Foxglove Aureolaria laevigata Frequent/Landscape
l. Downy False-foxglove Aureolaria virginica Common/Landscape
m. Smooth False Foxglove Aureolaria flava Frequent/Landscape
n. Wood-betony Pedicularis canadensis Common/Landscape
88. Bignoniaceae - Bignonia family
a. Trumpet-vine Campsis radicans Common/Landscape
89. Orobanchaceae - Broom-rape family
a. Beech-drops Epifagus virginiana Common
b. Squawroot Conopholis americana Common
90. Acanthaceae - Acanthus family
a. Water-willow Justicia americana Common
b. Smooth Ruellia Ruellia strepens Frequent
91. Plantaginaceae - Plantain family
a. Rugel's Plantain Plantago rugelii Common
b. Bracted Plantain Plantago aristata Common
c. Hoary & Dwarf Plantain Plantago virginica Frequent
92. Rubiaceae - Madder family
a. Cleavers Galium aparine Common
b. Sweet-scented Bedstraw Galium triflorum Common
c. Hairy Bedstraw Galium pilosum Frequent
d. Wild Licorice Galium circaezans Common/Landscape
e. Lance-leaved Bedstraw Galium lanceolatum Frequent/Landscape
f. Galium tinctorium
g. Stiff Marsh Bedstraw Galium obtusum Frequent
h. Common Bedstraw Galium concinnum Common
i. Rough Button-weed Diodia teres Frequent
j. Partridge-berry Mitchella repens Common
k. Button-bush Cephalanthus occidentalis Common/Landscape
l. Bluets Houstonia caerulea Common/Landscape
m. Summer Bluets Houstonia longifolia Frequent/Landscape
93. Caprifoliaceae - Honeysuckle family
a. Coralberry Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Frequent/Landscape
b. Black-haw Viburnum prunifolium Common/Landscape
c. Maple-leaved Arrow-wood Viburnum acerifolium Common/Landscape
d. Common Elderberry Sambucus canadensis Common/Landscape
94. Valerianaceae - Valerian family
a. Goosefoot Corn-salad Valerianella chenopodifolia Frequent
b. Beaked Corn-salad Valerianella umbilicata Frequent
95. Cucurbitaceae - Gourd family
a. Star-cucumber Sicyos angulatus Frequent
b. Bur-cucumber Echinocystis lobata Frequent
96. Campanulaceae - Bluebell family
a. Venus'-looking-glass Triodanis perfoliata Common/Landscape
b. Tall Bellflower Campanula americana Common/Landscape
c. Great Blue Lobelia Lobelia siphilitica Common/Landscape
d. Pale Spiked Lobelia Lobelia spicata (spicata) Frequent/Landscape
e. Indian-tobacco Lobelia inflata Common
97. Compositae - Composite family
a. Tall Ironweed Vernonia gigantea Common/Landscape
b. Spotted Joe-Pye-weed Eupatorium maculatum Common/Landscape
c. Joe-Pye-weed Eupatorium fistulosum Common/Landscape
d. Purple Joe-Pye-weed Eupatorium purpureum Common/Landscape
e. Upland Boneset Eupatorium sessilifolium Common
f. Common Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum Common
g. White Snakeroot Eupatorium rugosum Common
h. Mist-flower Eupatorium coelestinum Common/Landscape
i. Blue-stem Goldenrod Solidago caesia Common/Landscape
j. Zigzag Goldenrod Solidago flexicaulis Common/Landscape
k. Silver-rod Solidago bicolor Common/Landscape
l. Slender Goldenrod Solidago erecta Frequent/Landscape
m. Early Goldenrod Solidago juncea Common/Landscape
n. Gray Goldenrod Solidago nemoralis Common/Landscape
o. Elm-leaved Goldenrod Solidago ulmifolia Common/Landscape
p. Rough-leaved Goldenrod Solidago rugosa Frequent/Landscape
q. Tall Goldenrod Solidago canadensis Common/Landscape
r. Flat-top Goldenrod Solidago graminifolia Common/Landscape
s. Aster divaricatus Common/Landscape
t. Aster schreberi Frequent/Landscape
u. Large-leaved Aster Aster macrophyllus Common/Landscape
v. Short's Aster Aster shortii Common/Landscape
w. Blue Woodland Aster Aster cordifolius Common/Landscape
x Lowrie's Aster Aster lowrieanum Frequent/Landscape
y. Arrow-leaved Aster Aster sagittifolius Frequent/Landscape
z. Wavy-leaved Aster Aster undulatus Frequent/Landscape
aa. New England Aster Aster novae-angliae Frequent/Landscape
bb. Crooked-stem Aster Aster prenanthoides Common/Landscape
cc. Smooth Aster Aster laevis Frequent/Landscape
dd. Hairy White Aster Aster pilosus Common/Landscape
ee. Small-headed Aster Aster praealtus Frequent/Landscape
ff. Starved Aster Aster lateriflorus Common/Landscape
gg. Panicled Aster Aster simplex Common/Landscape
hh. White-top Aster Aster paternus Common/Landscape
ii. Philadelphia Fleabane Erigeron philadelphicus Common
jj. Daisy Fleabane Erigeron annuus Common
kk. White-top Aster Erigeron strigosus Common
ll. Horse-weed Erigeron canadensis Common
mm. Pussy-toes Antennaria plantaginifolia Common/Landscape
nn. Field Pusseytoes Antennaria neglecta Frequent
oo. Cudweed Gnaphalium obtusifolium Common/Landscape
pp. Purple Cudweed Gnaphalium purpureum Frequent/Landscape
qq. Giant Ragweed Ambrosia trifida Common
rr. Common Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia Common
ss. Common Cocklebur Xanthium strumarium Frequent
tt. Leaf-cup Polymnia canadensis Frequent/Landscape
uu Bearsfoot & Yellow Leaf-cup Polymnia uvedalia Frequent/Landscape
vv. Cup-plant Silphium perfoliatum Frequent/Landscape
ww. Rosinweed Silphium trifoliatum Common/Landscape
xx. Golden Knees Chrysogonum virginianum Frequent
yy. Smooth Ox-eye Heliopsis helianthoides Frequent/Landscape
zz. Eclipta alba Frequent
aaa. Rudbeckia laciniata (laciniata) Common
bbb. Rudbeckia triloba Common
ccc. Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta (hirta) Frequent/Landscape
ddd. Woodland Sunflower Helianthus divaricatus Common/Landscape
eee. Stiff-haired Sunflower Helianthus hirsutus Common/Landscape
fff. Small-flowered Sunflower Helianthus microcephalus Common/Landscape
ggg. Paleleaf Sunflower Helianthus strumosus Frequent/Landscape
hhh Helianthus decapetalus Frequent/Landscape
iii. Jerusalem Artichoke Helianthus tuberosus Common/Landscape
jjj. Wing-stem Verbesina alternifolia Common
kkk. Tall Tickseed Coreopsis tripteris Common/Landscape
lll. Nodding Bur-marigold Bidens cernua Frequent
mmm. Stick-tight Bidens tripartita Common/Landscape
nnn. Beggar's-ticks Bidens vulgata Frequent
ooo. Beggar's-ticks Bidens frondosa Common
ppp. Tickseed Sunflower Bidens coronata Frequent
qqq. Bidens polylepis Common
rrr. Spanish Needles Bidens bipinnata Frequent
sss. Sneezeweed Helenium autumnale Frequent/Landscape
ttt. Pilewort Erechtites hieracifolia Common
uuu. Pale Indian-plantain Cacalia atriplicifolia Common
vvv. Golden Ragwort Senecio aureus Common/Landscape
www. Roundleaf Ragwort Senecio obovatus Common/Landscape
xxx. Cirsium discolor Frequent
yyy. Tall Thistle Cirsium altissimum Common/Landscape
zzz. Wild Lettuce Lactuca canadensis Common
aaaa. Blue Lettuce Lactuca floridana Common/Landscape
bbbb. Tall Blue Lettuce Lactuca biennis Common/Landscape
cccc. Gall-of-the-earth Prenanthes serpentaria Frequent
dddd. White Lettuce Prenanthes alba Frequent
eeee. Lion's-foot Prenanthes altissima Common
ffff. Rattlesnake-weed Hieracium venosum Common/Landscape
gggg. Panicled Hawkweed Hieracium paniculatum Common
hhhh. Rough Hawkweed Hieracium scabrum Common
iiii. Hieracium gronovii Common

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